I. To my mind, the third option, discussing the problem with the design engineer and listening of his suggestion is the best one. I think so because this case requires a consultation with a specialist in this sphere. However, it is acceptably for Tim to rely on his own experience and use old components for the product, if he is sure that there would not be any problems with its functionality.
II. I think Tim should overcome his reluctance to consult with Arnold Peterson as he may receive an intelligi bleadvice about the solution of this problem. Even if he feels uneasy to do it, he should realize that the highest priority to solve this issue in a most appropriate way and do it as quickly as possible. Thus, Arnold may realize what is bestthing to do in this situation.
a. Tim should try again to ask more kindly how did Arnold solve such problems. He should emphasize that he has little experience in this kind of staff and cannot make the decision that he would consider definitely the correct one. If Arnold still would not answer him, Tim should tell him what decision he considers to be the best and ask Arnold whether he agrees with him.
b. In such case, Tim should listen the advice of Arnold and complete the order until the deadline in any possible way. I think so because Arnold appropriately explains Tim what is the highest priority in their work and what responsibility it requires. Thus, Tim should make the decision that he would consider the most adequate and not hesitate in it even if he has any doubts.
c. In this situation Tim has no choice but to take the decision by himself. He should realize that he cannot hesitate anymore, so he must try to solve the problem in the most appropriate way and finish it in time. Whatever decision he would make, it must be well thought-out as he has a great responsibility. Thus, he must think about all possible variants of solution of this problem.
Tim should explain the problem of a short supply of a new component and that he did not have other choices except to replace it with an old component on purpose to complete the order until the deadline. He should say that it was the most appropriate decision that he could make, although it did not seem to be the most satisfying. Anyway, he should insist that it was a right decision.
IV. Tim should say that he was in a critical situation and that he did not have much time to test those machines with new components. He had to make a difficult decision and nobody could help him in it with an appropriate advice. Then, he should concede that in any case it was his fault. After it, he should apologize and tell that this mistake would not be repeated.
V. To my mind, Tim acted appropriately as he was in a rather stressful situation that required a quick solution. He was not able to consult with anybody and at the same time, he had to finish the order on time. Thus, he had to make a decision that he considered to be the best one by himself. His action may be not appropriate from the point of morality, but it is absolutely right from the point of engineering ethics.