This summary should: a) describe the reason for the research. Define the hypothesis. b) description of the research design and their findings. c) It should not be summarizing their review of the literature. It should only be summarizing their primary research. d) IF YOU MUST use their words, you MUST put it in QUOTES!
Introduction should describe your hypothesis and your overall thought process. Citations in ALPHABETICAL ORDER based on author’s last name - put your citation first then followed by the abstract written in your own words. The citations should be related to your hypothesis 1.
Different policies are formulated to protect the interests of all individuals. Among these is the “No child left behind Act”, which was formulated by President George Bush. It was developed in the year 2001. The principal objective of this policy was to ensure that each child benefited from obtaining equal rights. The policy was clear, of the need or equality in the distribution children in every grade. Indeed, it did not matter which race, or the ethnic background the child came from. With this, the provision of adequate education opportunities for all children meant that the academic performance would be increased even among children who tend to be low achievers. On the other hand, even students who were not able to meet their academic proficiency were allowed to advance in their academic efforts. Despite this, schools were still held accountable for low scores of their students in various subjects. In this relation, the “No Child left Behind” has negatively impacted students’ ability on standardized tests. It results in the lack of achievement of adequate yearly progress by schools and districts yet they still allow children to progress academically. Therefore, “No Child Left Behind” needs to increases achievements among low performing student.
This research is conducted to analyze that despite the formulation of the policy, poor students still score low proficiency grades as they progress. It is because of the specific performance goals that have been placed based on the race of individual students. They thus make a hypothesis that most of the students who perform better are those that are given a higher target to achieve. Those students who are from races with a lower attainment target and goal tend to perform poorly despite the implementation of the act to favor them. Thus, meeting the reading proficiency for all students, which is the main goal of this act is extremely improbable.
The main kind of research design used to obtain the outcomes of this study is the comparison between different races in relation to the performance goals set for them. This brings out the difference in performance among students without the set goals with those among whom the goals have been placed as a target. It applies the provision by the history of the No child left behind Act to identify the basic goals. In addition, an analysis of how the goals that are based on race violate the equal protection clause is done. As such, it was discovered that the students from minority groups such as the Blacks and Hispanics continue to record poor performance in relation to their proficiency especially in Math and elementary reading. This is because they focus on achieving the lower goals that have been set for them. On the other hand, children from the groups considered superior despite their lower performance continue to score highly with an aim of reaching the higher goals set for them.
The chief purpose of this research was to conduct an investigation why the number of those students enrolling in musical classes was becoming higher despite poor performances all over the country. This was from the period between 1982 and 1990. The main aim was to determine what the trends in musical enrollment consisted of. It was also important to analyze whether most of these available trends were affected by the implementation of the “No child left behind” Act in 2001. The hypothesis stated that more students would enroll in more music courses while in high school. The rate would be higher in public schools where the Act is more recognized than in private schools that are more concerned with overall grades of students. The research design involved the collection of data from 10 separate high school transcript studies all over the country. They were conducted by the National Center for Educational Statistics. It was done through the creation of a unique data set to track certain unique data sets retrieved from the 9th grade up to the 12th grade. The music course enrollment patters were taken from the year 1982 to 1990. According to the descriptive results, it was realized that the overall enrollment in music courses revealed a more stable pattern among public schools as compared to the private schools. Approximately 34% of the students continuously enrolled in at least one course in music during high school.
The research is conducted to evaluate the disparity in responses of varied school heads towards the implementation of the “No child left behind” Act based on the lowered scores of students.
It was mainly performed among public schools in the urban areas. Therefore, the hypothesis stated that more principals would decline to meet the specifications of the “No child left behind” policy since it made them accountable for the poor performance of students who were forcefully made to progress.
The research made use of an exploratory experimental design. It was done to compare how six practicing principles in different schools reacted to the requests of the “No child left behind” Act. The perspectives of each of these principles in relation to the requirements of the No child left behind Act were assessed. In addition, the activities that they were involved in to maintain the requirements were also determined. It was mainly related to the aspect of multicultural leadership. It provided the most appropriate framework to understand the different perspectives of the principles. The outcomes of the study indicate that half of the principles involved in the research took part in the practical and meaningful work to fulfill the needs of the No child left behind policy. They made a lot of efforts to meet the needs of their students. The other three principals were more focused on what the law required. They were not concerned about the existing connection between the No child left behind policy and the multicultural leadership to bring about reforms in the schools.
The main purpose of conducting this research is to substantiate the belief that the quality of teachers greatly contributes to the quality of education that they will provide even to students who do not pass the standardized tests. It is usually speculated that students will get a higher quality of education and perform better if the teachers are equally of high quality. However, assessment fails with the presence of the “No child left behind” policy. It was hypothesized that apart from the first few years related to the classroom experience, this relationship is not obvious. There is no robust appearance of any connection between the quality of the teacher and the quality of the students in terms of their performance.
The type of study designed used for this study was correlation type of study where the outcome of the student is connected to the quality possessed by their teachers. It made use of a previously conducted research to associate the commonly used measures of teacher quality. They were used to identify some of the characteristics of effective teachers. These include the level of experience, expertise, level of degree and the certification offered to the teacher by the state. All these factors were related to the outcomes of the students. It was realized that the value of the teacher does not have a meaningful influence on the general performance of the students. The inability of a student to perform based on the impact of the “No child left behind policy” Act only required other measures to enhance achievement.
In this research study, the authors attempt to prove that the No child left behind Act has greatly impacted on various areas of the education curriculum. These include the college students who are forced to complete a number of tests that are standardized as well as other byproducts of the policy. With the implementation of the act, most of the students find the learning environments in the college set up very challenging. They make a hypothesis in relation to the effects of these tests on the students who are entering college. According to the authors most of the domestic students who are gaining entry into colleges have developed certain forms of learning and social problems that would lead to adverse effects in terms of the challenges that they experience in their future learning environments.
The main type of research study used in the research is the analysis of the No child left behind policy especially on the college student. This was done in relation to the performance of these students especially in subjects that include math and elementary reading. An evaluation on the reading capabilities was performed. It is found out that the Act has brought about significant changes in the elementary and secondary schools. For instance, the performance of students entering college has become lowered owing to the numerous standardized tests in comparison to what the case was almost ten years ago. This calls for the identification of the most effective means to educate the students alongside the young adults.
This research was performed with the main aim of prove that most students are finding it hard to adopt to the changes within the federalism education. In this relation, the hypothesis made was that in the last 15 years, a significant evolution in the intergovernmental system in relation to the education system has been realized. It has moved from a state of predominant compliance to one that is based on performance. There is a need to improve achievement among low performing students as they progress.
To achieve this, the research design that is related to the exploration of the way the state and local officers are changing the rules of the governing education service was used. This was done in response to the fulfillment of the expectations by the federal government. It made use of examination mechanisms on the paradigm shift. Subsequently, certain consideration aspects were made in relation to the emerging politics with regard to the intergovernmental relations. The findings were that the federal government has undergone a number of changes since the nation was founded. They include the critical phases that include the formulation of the No child left behind policy. With this, the federalism of education has embraced an approach that is based on performance. As such, it has increased the performance even among low achievers. It thus offers a great promise of better performance among all students.
It goes without saying that all children regardless their socio-economic statues, race, or ethnicity should receive adequate education. Thus, the policy act “No child left behind” implemented by President George W. Bush in 2001, was developed in order to meet this expectations. Nevertheless, when it come to assessing the results of the bill there is not such thing as fair criteria. Thus, instead of increasing the general performance of the students, the Act force them to focus attention on the specific tests in math and reading. Furthermore, the proper educational process does not take place. Deputies along with teachers aim to receive the high grades basing exclusively on these tests. Thus, the main goal of the “No child left behind” Policy Act to increase the academic performance among lower achieving students that are not meeting proficiency was not achieved. Moreover, No Child left Behind has negatively impacted students proficiency on standardizes test which results in school and districts not achieving Adequate Yearly Progress, but still allowing that child to academically progress. Thus, it can be concluded that the NCLB Policy Act needs to focus on the increasing the achievements among low performing students.
Carris, Joanne M. Ghosts Of No Child Left Behind. New York: P. Lang, 2011. Print.
Meier, Deborah, and George H Wood. Many Children Left Behind. Boston: Beacon Press, 2004. Print.
Peterson, Paul E, and Martin R West. No Child Left Behind?. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2003. Print.