Juvenile justice is the branch of criminal justice that deals with the supervision and care concerning the young reprobates in the society. Juvenile is specifically for minors and it involves rehabilitating the children who have lost track and their actions are against the moral rights. In statistics that was done in the United States earlier this year, is showed that about thirty five percent of the youth are always prone to child abuse and youth violence. This calls for the organizations that deals with the wellbeing if the children e.g. the World Health Organization to intervene. Youth violence the situation, where the behaviors or of a kid deteriorates, such that they affect the whole community. It may also refer to the behaviors that are harmful when they start at the early childhood and continue to the maturity of the offspring (Sullivan, 2006). It includes various behaviors, violent acts for instance bullying, hitting or slapping where the actions can Couse more emotional harm than physical. Some other actions like robbery with violence and assault can Couse severe consequences and even death. The ultimate goal of the community and all other relevant organization should be to stop youth violence before it even starts.
A juvenile delinquent person is one who is considered underage, below eighteen years and commits an act that would otherwise be charged as criminal of he or she was an adult (Leiber, 2010). Juvenile delinquency on the other hand may also be referred to as juvenile offending and it involves participation of the youths in crime. At this level many of them are not yet to achieve the statutory age of eighteen tears and thus several legal procedures might be prescribed to them where they may be taken to juvenile detention centers.
Life may be very difficult making a child change his or her behaviors. The child may get influenced by the community he lives in to become very disturbing criminal. Some of the children that have always ended up in juvenile courts have been witnessed by the community to do so many evil things. Some of them have even ended up killing in school or at home. As it is known now, the children of these days can be beaten unlike the times of our forefathers. Some of the children have turned so bad that the government chose to hold them hostage to protect them from the actions of an angry community (Davila, 2005). An example of such situation is children who take drugs and end up raping their parents. The systems involved in rehabilitating the minors, the court hearings, the processions, the factors that led them to doing the wrongs, the effects their actions Couse the community and the loss to the countries are some if the key issues discussed in this chapter.
Wrongdoers within the community are subjective to the law regardless of their age and socio-economic status. Those below the age are detained in the detention centers as ordinary hoary criminals. It helps in promoting justice practices among the youths. The main objective of having the juveniles is to rehabilitate the youths to responsible citizens rather than punishing them for their wrong deeds (Wright, 2011). In this chapter; the legal and the ethical issues of the children who ends up in prison, the individual characteristics of high risk youth, the family problems of high risk youth, the school and the institutional issues that impacts of high risk youth, the intervention, treatment and the prevention options of high risk youth are some of the main ideas that are going to be discussed in this chapter.
Legal and Ethical Issues
According to Leiber (2010), Criminal justice has made a human a critical and a prevalent subject for psychological research, which presents innumerable ethical concerns regarding the civilian rights of susceptible parties. In such researches the researchers mention considerable and potentially influence over their participants due to their diverse knowhow and perceived authority and integrity. This model was first presented to Milgram’s classic obedience experiments where it showed the power of institutional forces on human character and also behaviors. On the other hand, in such researches human specimen may be subjected to harmful situations due to negligence or even poor research methodologies.
Children in the community may lose their focus at any time they fail to be taken care of. Some of the children do not introduce themselves to bad behaviors. Most of them are always led by their majors to do the unexpected. For instance, so many children nowadays are getting introduced to the business of selling and smuggling drugs, stealing, murder and even rape cases (Iannacchione, 2006). The community and the society at large have a task to take care of the children for they represent the future leaders and with good guidelines they can use their little power to jeopardize from the worst that happen in the outside world.
The parents are the people who are expected to instill good morals to their children. It is believed that intense care and a lot of love is what leads the children needs to avoid disappointment. If parents eliminate the distance between their children and them, their children can have maximum opportunities to inform them of every action that is happening to their life (Johansson, 2007). The parent needs categorically to tell their children the things that are a taboo to the community and other things that the community doesn’t allow. For instance, so many communities do not tolerate stealing and also taking drugs. If, for example, you live in a community like this, it remains your responsibility as a parent to inform your kids about these ethics.
On the other hand, law of the land has a responsibility to play in making sure that the young generation is perfectly growing to maturity. In an extension of the state-owned constabularies in executing their duties, the courts have the power to enable the police in practicing their powers in ensuring the protection of the children, as well as their well-being in the society. Certain doctrines have been introduced to promote the welfare of the children, the principles help in maintaining the welfare of the children both under the custody of the state police and those in the custody of their guardians (Leiber, 2010). Whether a child is in the custody of the police or nor their welfare is regularly checked by the help and the rulings from the court.
Any obscurity in dealing with the youths may result to child abuse. Abuse of the minors is a criminal offence that can be convicted in a court of law. Correcting of the young generation is always encouraged to be through rehabilitation measures rather than any punishment towards the wrongdoer. Juvenile courts were introduced to facilitate the rehabilitation of the younger generation through a court of law for a fair and pronounced jurisdiction.
Juvenile courts Act was passed in 1968 and later revised in 1972. After the revision of the Act, the Act was called Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Act from the previous name. Through the amplification of the Act, the court has been able to provide quality and standardized jurisdictions among the convicted younger generation in the communities. The Juvenile Act evidently describes juvenile criminal case or otherwise the crimes committed by persons below the maturity age of 18 years in most countries (Morgen, 2008).
Individual Characteristics of High Risk Youth
An at-risk student is one who by circumstances is statistically probable to fail in the school performance more than the others. The researchers who are always involves in assessing the students of this kind often focus on the following issues; those who are academically disabled, those who are physically disabled, those with low economic status and also the students who have been in probationary in their past life.
In most youths, there are several characteristics and also traits that may lead them to be involved in the risk behaviors. Some of these factors may include; problems caused by brain diseases or disorders, childhood traumas such as sexual and physical abuse, failing in school absenteeism and other school problems, parental alcoholism or drug addiction and poor family violence (Ousey, 2005).
Some parents may want to use all means to change their children behaviors to the best but instead the law prohibits them. Some of the children may be born with individual traits that may make them look different to the other children. At some age, for instance, in the age of twelve, the children may be seen to be involved with things that are above their knowledge. Some of the students are seen to be involved in things like taking hard drugs, absolute disrespect to the majors or even sex with adults. In the latter case, even if the adult should be convicted for child abuse, it is very important also for the child to be investigated for moral decadence (Ousey, 2005).
When the children refuse to attend school, they get extra time that gives them space to try things that are very dangerous or even the bad things that that see happening in the community. For instance, in the year 2010 in California State, a grade six pupils were caught trying to have sex with a goat. It is the kinds of behaviors that in the future may lead the student to be a very bad raping criminal.
Family Problems Related to At-risk Youth
In a research that was done in the United States (Sullivan, 2006). It was concluded that about fifty-five percent of the American couples do not experience good relationships, and most of them live together because of the kids. Taking this example we can see that havoc, insults, and parents fights have been the order of the day in so many families. This kind of lifestyle has led to so many children indulging in abuse of drugs so as to reduce the stress that they get in home.
Taking the example of the families where the parents fight their wife’s in the presence of the kids. The kids in one way or another learn and in school or in other social places they may practice by beating other kids. It is a big problem that in the future may make the pupil harshly to beat or even kill his friends.
In homes where a single or both parents abuse drugs, the kids of that family may introduce themselves in taking drugs at the early ages. Some of the kids are not the one to blame because so of them may be addicted by passive smoking
School Issues That May Impact At-risk Youth
According to Iannacchione (2006), in the United States, research have always supported the introduction of monitoring programs as the potential tactics in meeting the needs of the students who engage themselves in risk behaviors. These studies have led to so many programs where LISTEN (Linking Individual Students to Educational Needs) represents the greatest member of them. This program is district sponsored and it aims to helping the students at the middle schools to quit from risk behaviors. The program has professional mentors who receive, evaluate and prescribe the best type of counseling to the subjects. The program have joined hand with many schools’ counselors, administrators, custodians, teachers and other employees to make sure that the behaviors of the risk students are streamlined to the best. From the year 2005 on word, the program has been seen to achieve near to its optimum in the sectors of student maturity and self-control.
Within years, the system of education in the United States has developed in a very high rate in the last couple of years (Webb, 2007). Through the new system, the kids are neither beaten nor given any punishment when the do wrongs. Through it, the students have indulged in so many risky behaviors because they know that they cannot be easily punished. Many of the minors get introduced to taking and selling of the substances in their respective schools.
In some institution, the students may be studying with other kids who are dowers of bad things. These bad kids can easily teach the good kids bad manners and ending up destroying the whole school. In many schools in the United States, impurity of the pupils mores has mainly being affected by bad influence and peer pressure. This is a situation where the students to bad things due to the motive and the influence of the group (Lee, 2013). Some of the bad manners that are taught through this style include; strikes; rapes and abuse of drugs.
Prevention, Intervention and Treatment Options
The juvenile justice discourages the punishing of the minors as it seems to be of less advantage to them. Punishing the minor wouldn’t help in changing and correcting their mistakes. Rehabilitation is highly recommended as it promotes the correction of the minors’ from their mistakes. Rehabilitating them makes it of much use to them as they are able to visualize the mess they did in their actions. Certain measures are usually taken to make it easier for the rehabilitation process much easier.
There is a signed covenant for the child to facilitate the changes in the behavioral conduct. A probation officer is always involved in ensuring the compatibility and the adoption of changes as required. The officer screens each and every move made by the individual to ensure that the requirements and the expectations of the changes have been attained. Some of the expected conditions are individual counseling, family counseling, community services, restitution, curfew or attending school
Counseling is the act of giving advice to particular in regard life situations (Iannacchione, 2006). An advice given helps the individuals in making pronounced decisions. It also helps in improving the personal perception about things and the interrelation with others. A healthy relationship promotes the smooth and efficient maintenance of order and law within the land. Once a minor has been advised on various issues affecting the day to date life situations, they are well equipped with life tactics in tackling different issues to enhance and discourage disagreements.
Skilled personnel are usually liable for the counseling of those who have been recommended to undergo through counseling periods within the juvenile custody. Counseling may be done from outside the custody of the police or through their custody (Ousey, 2005). From the outside, the minor is required to appear to the counselor in the specified time and undertake the counseling. Those done under the police custody and the individuals are counseled by the counselor either as a large group or as individuals. At times, the counseling may be done by the parents either through their expense or by themselves according to the stipulations of the jurisdiction.
A minor may have a jurisdiction that recommends him or her to attend into community services. The services may include maintenance of communal facilities through cleaning; this is the most common mode of community service that minors are frequently subjected to. The minor have to be subjective in the undertaking of the duties to make sure that they are fulfilling the ruling that was lawfully made.
Curfew is a regulation from movement. Depending on the crime that the minor had committed, the court may find it worth restricting them from having the freedom of movement without any regulation or order from the authorities (Morgen, 2008). Once a minor is restricted from moving around, it becomes much easier to control the behavioral reactions of the individual. This in return helps in their convalescence to a more responsible person.
On some instances, the minors may be administrated to attend school programs as usual. This mostly applies to those who might have neglected to attend their lessons in schools. They are required to attend their classes as usual to enable them have a change in their relation with others as well fulfilling the expectations of the parents and guardians. On attending school, the individuals will have to comply with the regulations of the institution thus enhancing them to adapt to changes thus facilitating the idea of rehabilitation (Davila, 2005).
To sum up, the united states have experienced deaths and shootings that have made many parents feel that their communities are no longer safe. The extreme actions of youth violence have led the country to increase the efforts of getting rid of the nuisance and thus opting juvenile justice.
Juvenile justices have greatly impacted on the issues of minor criminological activities and the responsiveness towards their rehabilitation. Making the minor adapt to the correct behavioral activities is much critical in ensuring that they clearly understand the concepts and the criteria to be used. Through the juvenile courts, this has been made much easier, and observable changes are at a rise. On the other hand the community should understand that a kid is the future of the country, in the sense that they will take over the ruling when their elders retire. The individuals who are involved in spoiling of the kids should be dealt with by the law. In general, we are responsible for our children’s behavior.
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